The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment

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    Veritasium

    If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

    Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
    Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
    Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

    LTEE website - myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html
    Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab - kishony.technion.ac.il
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    References:
    Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. - ve42.co/Lenski1994

    Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. - ve42.co/Lenski1991

    Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. - ve42.co/Good2017

    Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. - ve42.co/Blount2008

    Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). - ve42.co/Blount2018

    Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. - ve42.co/Wiser2013

    N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover - ve42.co/Scharping

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    Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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    Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
    Animation by Iván Tello
    Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
    Edited by Derek Muller
    Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
    Additional video supplied by Getty Images
    Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
    Produced by Casey Rentz
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Climb High
Climb High

And everyone wonder how we get to the Fauci Ouchie and the bio-terrorism we going through now. Starts like this right here

Prieš 3 val
Paul Doughty
Paul Doughty

This is cool to watch however a non-scientist here would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving. Meaning these bacteria didn’t grow a tail or change their physical attributes to become something else. The closest they came was that they introduced something new to their diet. A far cry from physical change. My kid decided to try mushrooms last week but he’s still my son. Definitely cool but not what I think defines evolution.

Prieš 12 val
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

"would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

Prieš 8 val
Robert Cummins
Robert Cummins

Bounty? Really? Bizarre.

Prieš 20 val
Taliesin River
Taliesin River

Promoting paper towels is pretty dumb. You're trying to make people afraid of doing something that was never dangerous with a very unscientific experiment, and promoting an unnecessary product that's bad for the environment. I'm disappointed that a science channel I respect would accept a sponsor like this.

Prieš 23 val
Rin倫
Rin倫

So, is this theory can apply to viruses too? If so, people can estimate how frequently Covid-19 will change per generation in theory?

Prieš dieną
Kyle Mecca
Kyle Mecca

This is absolutely amazing, I am fascinated by evolution. I want to see more Also I'm surprised you advertised bounty. There is nothing wrong with a little bacteria and germaphobia is indicative of a disconnection with the earth. Let's reduce and reuse, not encourage waste due to neurotic fears.

Prieš dieną
Taliesin River
Taliesin River

yes, very disappointing. Especially his completely unscientific 'experiment' to prove why they're useful.

Prieš 23 val
Marge N.
Marge N.

So this is what will actually kill us all?

Prieš dieną
relentlessmadman
relentlessmadman

I also use paper towels but I use the less expensive brands

Prieš dieną
relentlessmadman
relentlessmadman

does any one make paper towels from hemp yet????

Prieš dieną
Danny Ramirez
Danny Ramirez

My question is would there ever be a singularity that would happen during the evolutionary process

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mark green
mark green

What a brilliant universe G-D Created, even a tiny bacterium is programed to evolve, WOW!!!

Prieš dieną
Rhianne Moll
Rhianne Moll

Eat E. coli, Jonathan Wells!

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Арсенал
Арсенал

11:15 I got goosebumps here.

Prieš 2 dienas
Rhadoo RootBwoy
Rhadoo RootBwoy

Sponsored by paper towels... How about you stop promoting non eco-friendly products?

Prieš 2 dienas
Thom Of Hillbilly Haven
Thom Of Hillbilly Haven

gloves??

Prieš 2 dienas
Heinz Dontbother
Heinz Dontbother

@Veritasium, you might suggest the professor and his students to use mipar (mipar.us) to count those bacteria. Counting by hand is not necessary nowadays.

Prieš 2 dienas
BP
BP

Could you try this with various antibiotics? seperated from each other in the same fashion ? Did you try bacteria from the Ganges river? I heated that there is a antibiotics plant dumping these batches of bacteria in the water…

Prieš 2 dienas
Tom shiba
Tom shiba

would be funny if one day thes ebacteria became small animals with eyes

Prieš 2 dienas
Terry Caldwell
Terry Caldwell

The smartest ad integration

Prieš 2 dienas
chuck sch.
chuck sch.

Wow, this is real nice science, love it! Keep going with you works its really cool. :D

Prieš 2 dienas
pkr pdl
pkr pdl

Natural selection and competitive selection is also just a imaginative hypothesis not proved yet.

Prieš 3 dienas
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

"not proved yet." Proof isn't a thing in science, science operates on evidence and degrees of confidence. And natural selection has more evidence than just about any other theory in science.

Prieš 2 dienas
pkr pdl
pkr pdl

This experiment support adaptation within same species. Not evolution. Can scientists evolve this bacteria into multi-cellular organism? That will be wonderful. No-one can do that. Darwin theory is just an observation. A hypothesis.

Prieš 3 dienas
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

@pkr pdl Sorry, but I have no idea what it is you are trying to ask me here. Feel free to try again.

Prieš 2 dienas
pkr pdl
pkr pdl

@Crispr CAS9 bacteria do have so short life span. What if this kind of experiment continues to evolve to higher genus and if possible family?

Prieš 2 dienas
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

"This experiment support adaptation within same species. Not evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "Can scientists evolve this bacteria into multi-cellular organism?" Not with this experimental setup, but other experiments have produced multicellular bacteria.

Prieš 2 dienas
Matthew Salvatar
Matthew Salvatar

Wait, so if I get the ending there. Life shows a capacity to transcend entropy?

Prieš 3 dienas
To Serve Man
To Serve Man

Define "Entropy." And nothing in the universe (flowing chain reactions) transcends the universe.

Prieš dieną
Danish
Danish

When did Adam Ragusea start doin science content ?

Prieš 3 dienas
michaelsimkin
michaelsimkin

According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something. And this is what we do not see.

Prieš 3 dienas
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

"According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something." So you're saying you don't know anything about evolutionary theory? Fun.

Prieš 3 dienas
erikfinnegan
erikfinnegan

Veritasium FAKE for money: big experiment setup to pitch paper towels — microprint disclamer in the end says that experiment is "not representative". Not the the sort of statistical significance that I've grown used to wrt this channel. Oh, and you should always use recycled material or wash. There's always room for a couple kitchen cloths in the washer.

Prieš 3 dienas
David Kellen
David Kellen

I'm really concerned about how they handle bacteria... No gloves, just a slight "Touch" in the fire and "importante" the material and bacteria are being exposed to Open air...

Prieš 3 dienas
Tyray3P
Tyray3P

It's all well and good until the germs can transfer through xenonite

Prieš 3 dienas
Cedric Velarde
Cedric Velarde

1st gen e coli: we cant eat that its deadly! 1000000+ gen e coli: u wut m8?!

Prieš 3 dienas
A Real Life Dog
A Real Life Dog

Crematoriums are for organisms that are already dead... Those furnaces look more like something found at Dachau

Prieš 4 dienas
МАТЬ-РОССИЯ
МАТЬ-РОССИЯ

*how to create a supervirus*

Prieš 4 dienas
gyamlj
gyamlj

This is a highly controlled environment. Compare the competitive advantage of the newest and oldest colonies in a natural world where innumerable other factors weigh in to survival. It may very well be that the older organisms are better able to survive. This is analogous to selective breeding that creates an animal with desired characteristics but is otherwise less capable of overall survival compared to its ancestors. I'm afraid this teaches me nothing.

Prieš 4 dienas
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

"I'm afraid this teaches me nothing." Says more about you than the experiment, I think.

Prieš 3 dienas
Ashethorama
Ashethorama

Did anyone else notice the reference from the movie “The 13th Warrior” on the fridge? Timestamp 7:50 minute

Prieš 4 dienas
Seven Ligthson
Seven Ligthson

YES! Nothing out is not in and everything out is in ;-)) 1.5 (oo.000) is human program given by life = love = what you are in need of, who (do you) are (you)? I took my ABO once more!

Prieš 4 dienas
Christopher Inman
Christopher Inman

Queen Elizabeth I (of England) cooked a fruitcake for members of parliament to celebrate its opening. A bit was saved to be included in the next parliament's opening, etc. So now, when parliament begins its new season, the members are privileged to have a bit of cake cooked by Shakespeare's favorite monarch! [i have not fact-checked this because i don't want to find out if it is not true]

Prieš 5 dienų
maruftim
maruftim

Mad scientist fell into bacteria gacha hell...

Prieš 5 dienų
AJ T
AJ T

Is he referring to Confirmation Bias or is it something else?

Prieš 5 dienų
ZedCactus
ZedCactus

This episode was great! Really interesting.

Prieš 5 dienų
Lief Bamberg
Lief Bamberg

disappoinited that derek is now hawking that idea that greater bacterial spread is somehow dirtier, and that you should use disposible environment wrecking paper over washable cloths.

Prieš 5 dienų
WowZers
WowZers

Imagine being the chad bacteria to first eat the citrate

Prieš 5 dienų
Rodrigo Segura
Rodrigo Segura

42, ¿coincidence? I think not

Prieš 5 dienų
Frenchnostalgique
Frenchnostalgique

Prof Richard Lenski has the same accent as Rich Evans and it's throwing me off.

Prieš 5 dienų
Azurium
Azurium

Me seeing 1% selection first hand: "So that's what the aliens are doing to our universe and what the Great Filter could be."

Prieš 5 dienų
Azurium
Azurium

Context: imagine that at 7:30 he's talking about intergalactic species expanding across the universe.

Prieš 5 dienų
Christian412 America
Christian412 America

The educated dumbasses still call it evolution. After 70000+ generations the bacteria is still producing bacteria. The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria. Why is it so hard to get un biased conclusions? The only thing that has been observed is ADAPTATION not evolution.

Prieš 6 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

"The educated dumbasses still call it evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria" If they produced something other than bacteria, it would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?

Prieš 5 dienų
SuperSonic Boom
SuperSonic Boom

Nah, if the flask breaks we become the solution to the experiment.

Prieš 6 dienų
Michael Kurek
Michael Kurek

It’s called mutation or adaptation. NOT EVOLUTION! The bacteria will always remain bacteria, just more resistant.

Prieš 6 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

Prieš 5 dienų
Guy Fox
Guy Fox

IT'S GOD! LOL

Prieš 6 dienų
Samaila Abdullahi
Samaila Abdullahi

I am forever grateful to Dr IGUDIA on YouTube who cured me from herpes with his herbal medication, you are so real and trusted.

Prieš 6 dienų
RD2564
RD2564

Beautiful video. Biosciences are a rich hunting ground for new videos.

Prieš 7 dienų
David Blank
David Blank

So...when do they turn into monkeys??? Can monkeys evolve into bacteria???

Prieš 7 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

"So...when do they turn into monkeys" Based on evolutionary science, never. If you think evolution suggests otherwise, you don't understand evolution.

Prieš 6 dienų
DeadEndFrog
DeadEndFrog

well don't judge the Qu when they do this to us :^)

Prieš 7 dienų
lalit pal
lalit pal

I see you evolving from young youtuber :D

Prieš 7 dienų
wildstar2424242424
wildstar2424242424

A million bacterial monkeys typing on a million bacterial type-writers.... One of them finally wrote the opening to hamlet

Prieš 7 dienų
Mike Tacos
Mike Tacos

13:48 A couple more generations and they’ll be growing eyes and noses.

Prieš 7 dienų
Mike Tacos
Mike Tacos

Then someone breaks the glass.

Prieš 7 dienų
Chris Koll
Chris Koll

I'll bet you I can make a dog "evolve" so that it will CRAVE something that canines would NEVER consume if left to their own tastes(sp?)...

Prieš 8 dienų
mwuaha
mwuaha

what?

Prieš 7 dienų
Truther
Truther

Are tests like this being done on viruses?

Prieš 8 dienų
FuriousGeezer
FuriousGeezer

So what you are saying is, after 75,000 generations, it's just better bacteria, but in the same amount of generations we went from monkey to man? Why didn't it macro evolve?

Prieš 8 dienų
FuriousGeezer
FuriousGeezer

@Crispr CAS9 fair enough! I am still seeing no evidence of macro evolution, but that timeline sure makes it look like more of a possibility. My timeline was clearly off

Prieš 7 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

@FuriousGeezer "it's a long time from bacteria to monkey" Monkeys are not descended from bacteria. "We get what a billion or so years?" 3.5 billion from first life to complex life, another 100 million to get on land, another 150 million for mammals, another 100 million for primates, another 50 for humans. Approximately.

Prieš 7 dienų
FuriousGeezer
FuriousGeezer

@Crispr CAS9 Both are human though, yes. I poorly worded it.

Prieš 7 dienų
FuriousGeezer
FuriousGeezer

@Crispr CAS9 it's a long time from bacteria to monkey and again to man. Not sure there is time for that🤷🏼‍♂️. We get what a billion or so years?

Prieš 7 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

In the same number of generations, our ancestors went from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Both of those are humans.

Prieš 7 dienų
Neiley
Neiley

so how long til one of the containers crawls off? :P

Prieš 8 dienų
sf
sf

using the same needle for different flask samples???!!

Prieš 8 dienų
Bangs Cutter
Bangs Cutter

The human scale equivalent of this would be alien abduction encounters, where aliens continuously sample humans as they observe our evolution.

Prieš 8 dienų
Brad Shymon
Brad Shymon

Shouldn't forget all the generations of students who evolved the professor's knowledge and status! 🧐

Prieš 8 dienų
realitycheck2001
realitycheck2001

Wait. She wasn’t wearing gloves. Am I missing something?

Prieš 9 dienų
Gary CLark
Gary CLark

Ok thats stretch of a comparison. The mutations of a one cell bacterium are quite different than the mutations that would have to occur for an ape like creature to transform into what man is today. I don't care how many million years you tack on to it.

Prieš 9 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

@Gary CLark "viable offspring means to me that the offspring can then reproduce." Then you are looking for the word 'fertile'. Viable just means 'living', so the offspring is born and can survive. "The sturddlefish is sterile like the mule" That's unclear at this point. They won't hit sexual maturity for a decade, so until then it's just guess work. Also, mules are not always sterile, just usually, and the overwhelming majority of hybrids are more fertile than mules. "Do we have empirical evidence of this?" Yes, it's how reproduction works. "Is there any physical evidence to show these ancestral lineages?" The fossil record. "but I still have issue with the assumption that an organism of one species is the inherent ancestor of another species." Good news, we don't assume any single organism is an ancestor to another species. The theory operates at the level of populations, not individuals. 'Ancestral to' usually just means that a fossil population is more closely related to the actual ancestors of a modern population than to anything else, not that it literally contained the ancestors. "We don't have evidence of one species evolving into another species in the fossil record or in todays timeline" Very technically, a population becomes a different species from its ancestors when people say it does, because species is a human label. What we have extensive evidence for is populations diverging morphologically over time, and such morphological divergence is highly correlated with getting labeled as a separate species by people. But using a more colloquial understanding of 'one species evolving into another', we have plenty of examples. Homo erectus to Homo sapiens, for one. We also have really great records for the evolution of horses, whales, birds and several other groups of dinosaurs, a huge number of fish lineages, and countless invertebrates. More or less every major transition is covered. "or in todays timeline." There are dozens of laboratory examples of speciation, and several examples in the wild.

Prieš 19 val
Gary CLark
Gary CLark

@Crispr CAS9 viable offspring means to me that the offspring can then reproduce. The sturddlefish is sterile like the mule. A hybrid is a hybrid and not a species for a reason. Your definition if I understand correctly relating to phylogeny in taxonomy that classifies organisms base on closely related characteristics. So you assume that because there are shared characteristics in the tree of life taxonomy of generations that the said species have a common ancestor. Do we have empirical evidence of this? Is there any physical evidence to show these ancestral lineages? I believe taxonomy to be a great way of grouping organisms in a way to understand common characteristics of organisms but I still have issue with the assumption that an organism of one species is the inherent ancestor of another species. We don't have evidence of one species evolving into another species in the fossil record or in todays timeline. It's a definition that proves to much.

Prieš dieną
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

@Gary CLark Definition from your most recent comment (my emphasis): " a category of biological classification ranking immediately below the genus or subgenus, comprising related organisms or *populations* potentially capable of *interbreeding*" Definition from your previous comment: "the ability to reproduce viable offspring" You'll notice that the Webster's definition indicates that it is referencing populations, delimited by potential interbreeding within that population. Your definition makes no indication of populations or how to delimit within. By your definition, every fertile organism is a separate species, which would obviously be nonsense. The Webster's definition, as it happens, is also wrong since it would mean there are no species of bacteria, which is obviously nonsense. And it would mean that paddlefish and sturgeons are the same species, in spite of being in different families. They would have been better to say something like: "a category of biological classification ranking immediately below the genus or subgenus, comprising related organisms or populations [sharing some set of characteristics, (e.g. the ability to interbreed).]" There are many common species concepts in biology, and none are universally accepted. Webster's decided to use only one of them, which is problematic, but then again they are not writing for a scientific audience. "What is your definition." Species are hypotheses that populations delimited by some metric(s) are monophyletic with respect to ancestry, and that no monophyletic subclade(s) of those populations can be delimited by the same metric(s). The resulting population's monophyly can then be tested by other delimitation metrics producing either concordant or discordant results. "Now I think that your just saying stuff to say stuff." Language is a tricky thing, and must be used with care. Especially when discussing complex topics. I use my words in very specific ways to convey very specific meanings, and I assume that others do the same. It is possible I did not respond to the meaning you intended but I can only respond to the meaning I understand, not necessarily the one you intend.

Prieš dieną
Gary CLark
Gary CLark

@Crispr CAS9 websters dictionary : a category of biological classification ranking immediately below the genus or subgenus, comprising related organisms or populations potentially capable of interbreeding, and being designated by a binomial that consists of the name of a genus followed by a Latin or latinized uncapitalized noun or adjective agreeing grammatically with the genus name. What is your definition. Now I think that your just saying stuff to say stuff.

Prieš 2 dienas
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

@Gary CLark "definition of a species is the ability to reproduce viable offspring" That is not a definition of species at all, and certainly not the way the word is used in biological science. "I would argue there is proof in science or rahter evidence if you want to call that" Since proof and evidence are not synonyms, this is not a question of preference. One is correct, the other isn't. There is no proof in science. "organized randomly through mutation in a way to create vision." The organization is by selection, which is non-random. Mutations just produce the variation that selection can act on. "how do we know it's random" Because we know how mutations work, to a reasonable degree of accuracy. "Could it not be hormonal?" Hormonal differences can cause differences in fitness, but what causes the differences in hormones? To the best of my knowledge, all differences in hormones are either differences in genetics or differences in environment acting on genetics. And here we are talking about a subset of the population with a differential hormonal response when exposed to the same environment as the rest of the population, so it can *only* be the underlying genetics that explains it. "or that the organism sensing something is changing" Let's say this, or any of the rest of what you suggest happens: the question is 'how is it happening in *some* members of the population and not others?' Is there an answer other than genetics available?

Prieš 2 dienas
Chris M
Chris M

Still waiting. When did bacteria have gain in function/information and become a dog? Nowhere in the world does that occur. Besides all fossils having soft cell tissues in them is clear and abundant evidence evolution does not occur. There are not enough trillions and quadrillions of years for "mutations" required to have gained in function as soft cell tissues have how long a life? Your experiment does nothing but proves the existence of a "pre-programmed will to survive" or immunity as your body posses. Mankind did not evolve from apes or will they evolve into something other than humans. Transitional fossils? Where?

Prieš 9 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

@Chris M "That is the events evolution proposes." No, it isn't.

Prieš 8 dienų
Chris M
Chris M

@Crispr CAS9 That is the events evolution proposes.

Prieš 8 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

"When did bacteria [...] become a dog?" If bacteria became dogs, that would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?

Prieš 9 dienų
Vinícius M
Vinícius M

E.Colocaust :(

Prieš 9 dienų
Chris Carriere
Chris Carriere

Isn't it possible to try and make bacteria evolve into eating stuff we treat as garbage ? Like idk all the "bad" gases etc. Could solve a lot of problems

Prieš 9 dienų
Stephanie Hyatt
Stephanie Hyatt

I hate to mention this, but unless you are composting your paper towels, use re-usable microfiber cloths that you can throw in the washer. I use them occasionally, but rarely for cleaning.

Prieš 9 dienų
Ismael Abufon
Ismael Abufon

12:31 ... I 100% read Gattaca haha

Prieš 9 dienų
Ismael Abufon
Ismael Abufon

The lucky 1% gets to reproduce..... like the super rich haha

Prieš 9 dienų
Peter Smoyer
Peter Smoyer

Space itself is the thing that is evolving. All the matter, energy and radiation that exists in the universe at one time fit into something the size of a soccer ball or perhaps a football stadium. It all came from space. It is all here to benefit space. Space would not be as expansive as it is without the matter and energy it created in less than one second.

Prieš 10 dienų
Antisocial Atheist
Antisocial Atheist

I could sit down and talk with that guy for days lol. Very interesting and informative. If I could meet him I'd have to thank him for his work

Prieš 10 dienų
Plum Amazing
Plum Amazing

The best example of this kind of research is a really old story by the author of 'Game of Thrones' George R.R Martin. It's one of his best. It's a short story called 'Sandkings'. There is the book on youtube. Also the outerlimits video also on youtube. Sorry I can't put up links you'll have to search youtube. Very scary one to read. I suspect you will like it. muhahaha

Prieš 10 dienų
Falsimer
Falsimer

When the music kicked in I got a wave of nostalgia. I saw your source, but what it reminded me of was the Majora's Mask Milk Bar Theme. The most simultaneously upbeat and sorrowful music I can think of right now. Only the first 5 or so notes of your music matched the Theme, but it was enough to spark my memory.

Prieš 10 dienų
Benjamin Márkus
Benjamin Márkus

that transfer process was suprisingly lax! :o i would’ve thought you’d want to do this under suction cabinet with purified atmosphere and such.

Prieš 10 dienų
sokin jon
sokin jon

“33 years ago, even on weekends ever since ..” Bacteria are annoyingly hard workers.

Prieš 10 dienų
mbbs2008
mbbs2008

Perhaps this is adaptability? Quiet possible that bacteria have different (higher) adaptability potential then higher animals?. The bacteria still remained "bacteria" at the end, even after 30 years relentless "experimentation", and did no really "evolve" into a new species? Am I missing something?

Prieš 10 dienų
mike powers
mike powers

This is a great experiment in micro evolution and also acts as an experiment in macro evolution as well, if macro evolution were possible there would be signs after 70k generations but, that is not the case. No matter how resilient or mutated these samples are they are still E. coli bacteria and not E. coli/??? Or something completely different.

Prieš 10 dienų
sokin jon
sokin jon

stove, etc. It's WAY too wasteful to use paper towels! SHAME on you, for promoting such wastefulness!!

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jonnyjazzz
jonnyjazzz

So this is what Chase is doing these days. Decided he liked the red-head look, too.

Prieš 10 dienų
Emmanuel N
Emmanuel N

Evolution really isn't true devolution or decay is much more realistic

Prieš 10 dienų
Tom James
Tom James

Where are the damn gloves?

Prieš 10 dienų
Máté Ócsai
Máté Ócsai

This video was amazing. I was hooked from the beginning.

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Roberto Serrini • The Travelclast
Roberto Serrini • The Travelclast

bounty blew my mind

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Ad Lakerveld
Ad Lakerveld

It seems dangerous to me learning bacteria to survive antibiotics

Prieš 10 dienų
X17
X17

This is a perfect plot for a disaster movie

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X17
X17

why 42 though?

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betaneptune
betaneptune

This is the great experiment Richard Dawkins describes in his book _The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution_!

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Ezgi Umut
Ezgi Umut

As far as I understand the environment in this experiment is strictly controlled with constant and optimal temperature and nutritional content. There are no other species present. E.coli to grow faster in such an environment is most likely explained by the fact that these bacteria evolve to spend less energy and time to adapt to different temperatures, nutritional shortages (ex. storing carbohydrates), and competing with other species, allowing them to concentrate all metabolic activity on growth and reproduction. Thus, the "constant improvement" proposed by the researcher is questionable. This is probably not an improvement, it is only an action of increasing the activity of only one vital metabolic function (growth by using glucose) at the expense of others (adaptation to temperature, nutritional shortage, competition, etc.).

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Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

@Ezgi Umut "My comment is not a claim" Yes it is. You claimed that something was the most likely explanation, you must support this. You've also made a collection of claims in your new comment, and provided support for none of them. You're just making stuff up, no one cares.

Prieš 9 dienų
Ezgi Umut
Ezgi Umut

@Crispr CAS9 My comment is not a claim, rather a necessary discussion before accepting that this experiment provides evidence to "continuous improvement" in a stable environment. I consider that it should be called continuous adaptation to the experiment's growth medium. The first generation E.coli of this experiment comes from the real world where it spent significant energy to preserve membrane potential to the changing electrolyte concentrations of its habitat, to adapt to temperature changes and nutritional content as well as producing multiple enzymes to produce energy from many non-glucose substrates. The hospitable and stable environment provided in this experiment is expected to result in selective atrophy of the aforementioned metabolic features of the bacterium that it gained to survive harsh living conditions; allowing more energy to be spent on growth and reproduction rather than metabolic defensive buffers, competition, etc. The researcher has to disprove this interpretation before concluding that continuous improvement takes place even in stable conditions. These bacteria are still adapting to this new friendly habitat (no fluctuations in sodium, phosphate, potassium, magnesium, citrate, ammonium concentrations, temperature, nutrition ) even if it has been going on for 30 years (which is not a long time) especially considering that it is markedly different from what the bacteria have evolved in millions of years. The atrophy of previously essential functions with environmental change has been described in many species even in vertebrates in Galapagos.

Prieš 9 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

@Ezgi Umut " It is more likely that the outcome (growth rate) is better not because of progress, but rather from the atrophy of other metabolic functions that are necessary for life in the real world" This is your claim, present your evidence to support it.

Prieš 10 dienų
Ezgi Umut
Ezgi Umut

@Crispr CAS9 the ability to grow without glucose (ex. metabolizing citrate) is a different discussion that takes place during the video. However, the main topic of interest that the researcher emphasizes at the conclusion is the constant improvement of the growth rate which concerns the bacteria incubated at the standard DM25 liquid medium (10% glucose). It is more likely that the outcome (growth rate) is better not because of progress, but rather from the atrophy of other metabolic functions that are necessary for life in the real world, that have become obsolete in this experiment method.

Prieš 10 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

"it is only an action of increasing the activity of only one vital metabolic function (growth by using glucose)" The interesting finding is that are able to grow in the complete absence of glucose. Are you sure you watched the video?

Prieš 10 dienų
hoiy vinosa
hoiy vinosa

“33 years ago, even on weekends ever since ..” Bacteria are annoyingly hard workers.

Prieš 11 dienų
Blue Five
Blue Five

I'm put in mind of 'The Outer Limits' episode 'Wolf 359'.

Prieš 11 dienų
Soapy's Thoughts
Soapy's Thoughts

This reminds me of Primer

Prieš 11 dienų
Yout Funny
Yout Funny

Evolution is Adaptation Adaptability

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hoiy vinosa
hoiy vinosa

i just love the hippie labcoat at 11.50 :-) ....sadly not gonna happen in my lab :-(

Prieš 11 dienų
Mary Ann Bittle
Mary Ann Bittle

Paper towels? Um, NO. Dish cloths, hand towels, sponges, all can be - get this - *WASHED* to sanitize them. No need, at ALL, to waste trees in order to wipe down the counter, stove, etc. It's WAY too wasteful to use paper towels! _SHAME on you,_ for promoting such wastefulness!!

Prieš 11 dienų
Robe005
Robe005

Damn, the ThermoFisher ad was awesome. Don't know what it was but the music and video were very satisfying:)

Prieš 11 dienų
Fred Bach
Fred Bach

No we're not viewing evolution as it happens. You are describing 'minor evolution' which is an adaptation to environment. It's still the same bug. It hasn't turned into another kind of bacteria. And the corn is still corn. Major evolution would result in a different bacterium or a different plant. I wish you evolutionists would stop lying to us. Stop using the smoke screen of minor evolution to prove that major evolution is a fact.

Prieš 11 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

​@Fred Bach "That was a library addition using Crisper " I don't know which experiment you're talking about, but it isn't any of the ones featured in this video. "Let me know when it turns into something that is not an E-coli." 'E coli' is a species designation, and species designations are human labels for human abstractions of populations. A sub population of E coli is no longer E coli when humans decide it, and by the ecotype conception of species delimitation the Ara-3 strain is already a new species. "Does the citrate ability come via the Rogues' Gallery or from elsewhere in the genome?" The citrate ability comes from a novel mutation, as confirmed by genomic sequencing of the ancestral and descendant strains. " If the latter, what will happen if you took the citrate away for 75000 generations? Might it lose its ability to handle citrate? " Sounds like you just suggested it can't be evolution if *more* evolution happens afterwards. I hope that isn't what you intended, since that would be silly.

Prieš 10 dienų
Fred Bach
Fred Bach

@Crispr CAS9 the bugs were given a Rogues gallery of what compounds to be immune to. For instance the square carbon ring in penicillin family drugs. That was a library addition using Crisper.... rather than a genetic mutation. Your username comes from that process. It's still an E-coli with a bigger library and a genetic variation. This ability is given to most lifeforms. Let me know when it turns into something that is not an E-coli. Does the citrate ability come via the Rogues' Gallery or from elsewhere in the genome? If the latter, what will happen if you took the citrate away for 75000 generations? Might it lose its ability to handle citrate? This reminds me of the moths in England that turned from a light shade to a dark shade and back to light again when the air pollution was cleaned up. I know you will attribute that to preditors. You actually need to do the other half of the experiment and put the new bug in an old environment for 75000 generations and see what it gains and loses.

Prieš 10 dienų
Null Pointer
Null Pointer

lots of small changes eventually make large changes...

Prieš 11 dienų
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9

"No we're not viewing evolution as it happens." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "It's still the same bug." It isn't the same, the descendant can use citrate as a sole carbon source, which the ancestor could not. They have identified the mutations responsible, which were not present in the ancestor. It is demonstrably different. "It hasn't turned into another kind of bacteria. " 'Kind' is a nonsense word without any scientific validity. "Major evolution would result in a different bacterium" Then mission accomplished, as explained above. "or a different plant." If any of the descendants of bacteria were plants, that would disprove evolution. Asking as evidence for a thing something that would actually disprove that thing is a fairly clear indication you don't understand the subject in the first place.

Prieš 11 dienų
Oogie Padoogie
Oogie Padoogie

And in 30 more years (equivalent to 3 million years from the start), still nothing cool happened. Yawn.

Prieš 12 dienų
Fred Leonard
Fred Leonard

Time for flask beer pong?

Prieš 12 dienų
patricio patricio
patricio patricio

when you touch the elbow for said hi don't keep social distance needed for prevent covid

Prieš 12 dienų
Adnan haider
Adnan haider

New Hollywood movie plot, Planet of the Bacteria.

Prieš 12 dienų
Polaris Raven
Polaris Raven

So, as opposed to a Grey Goo scenario (Out of control Nano-Bot Replicators), this would be a Green Goo scenario?

Prieš 10 dienų
random black hole
random black hole

So "life finds a way" even if it doesn't need to?

Prieš 12 dienų
Jorjon Jorjon
Jorjon Jorjon

Imagine if we are just an experiment inside an alien race flask, and we die because otherwise the experiment would become unmanageable.

Prieš 12 dienų

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